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Marketing - Branding 

Topics on this site: Topics on separate sites of our Knowledgebase:
Introduction and Overview Co-Branding
Articles Brand Valuation
Branding Strategy  
Branding Globally  
Brand Portfolios  
Brand Extensions  

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11 December 2007

Introduction and Overview
3 Golden Rules of Naming Short but good!
A View on the Future of Branding  The traditional perception of branding has cast brands as being cynically manipulative. It is time for brands to prove their worth to consumers, their guidance to employees and business partners.  
Auto-branding: beyond trans-portation…to trans-formation Take a ride in the realms of automotive history and discover how cars were imbued with aspirational and emotional branding elements, elevating the product far beyond its initial purpose of existence.  
B2B Branding: Consumer Branders Need Not Apply B2B marketers sometimes talk about B2B branding as if it were just like branding Coke. Inappropriately applying the techniques used by B2C companies to B2B companies, however, can result in painfully ex-pensive mistakes.   
Bank on the Brand The financial services market is notoriously lacking strong brands. This summary of a recent global study investigates the strong value that branding can deliver and recommends how to maximize this value amongst all of a company’s audiences.   
Battling for the Brand - Branding for Business Schools Interview with Al and Laura Ries.   
Brand Assimilation - Aligning Employees Around Your Brand Making the brand the central focus of the organization clarifies for any employee what is “on-brand” and what is “off-brand.”   
Brand Battle When premium brands need a scrappy sibling. The article discusses when and why to introduce a two-product, or even a two-brand, strategy to fight no-name players.  TOP
Brand Performance Volatility from Marketing Spending While volatile marketing spending, as opposed to even-level spending, may improve a brand’s financial performance, it can also increase the volatility of performance, which is not a desirable outcome. This paper analyzes how revenue and cash-flow volatility are influenced by own and competitive marketing spending volatility, by the level of marketing spending, by the responsiveness of own marketing spending, and by competitive response.   
Branding and M&As The risks in "getting the deal done". The handling of brand-related issues can make or break a deal. Why? Because brand moves send messages, intended and unintended, to the companies' stakeholders.   
Branding in a Recession Do you consider your brand well managed? If it is, it should be able to sustain your company through the economic pains of a recession.   
Branding: The Past, Present, and Future: A Study of the Evolution and Future of Branding This paper finds the relationships in previous literature and reveals how these theories see branding from various perspectives and how they can be integrated to form a coherent view. 2011  
Brand-relationship-interaction (BRI) Matrix  In this paper the authors consider various types of brand constellations and propose a four-cell matrix based taxonomy of brand linkages as a contribution to the further understanding of this complex area.   
Brands are about relationships, not transactions Too many people today seem to misuse the term "brand" as if a brand an a product name are the same thing. However, this is not the case. Karen Post's article describes the key differences with brands helping to provide an emotional relationship with the consumer and this is what distinguishes a brand from a product name.   
Building Brand Tradition We may be accustomed to traditions in our personal lives, but how can tradition apply to brands? This paper delves into the usefulness and importance of brands creating their own traditions.   
Comprehending Corporate Brands This article examines the nature, importance, typology, and management of corporate brands. We argue though that making a distinction between corporate brands, corporate identities, and product brands the underlying characteristics of corporate brands can be uncovered.   
Corporate Brand Repositioning with CSR as the Differentiating Factor: A Study on Consumer Perceptions This research paper studies how the strategy of repositioning enables marketers to communicate CSR as their brand’s differentiating factor. It aims at understanding how consumer perceptions can be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor. 2011  
Corporate Brands with a Heritage This article articulates a concept of “heritage brands,” based primarily on field case research and studies of practice. We define brand heritage as a dimension of a brand’s identity found in its track record, longevity, core values, use of symbols, and particularly in an organisational belief that its history is important. 2007  
Corporate Rebranding: Learning from Experience This qualitative study examines seven UK-based organisations which have re-branded in the past five years. The aim was to understand better the complex and infrequent process of re-naming, and to identify key issue areas which those undertaking a re-branding process need to manage.  
Developing a Trademark Licensing ROI Model As Kirk Martensen explains in this article, licensing a brand name is much more than making money on royalties. If handled properly, licensing a brand or trademark can add to the brand's image and make marketing communications more effective.  
Experience Counts - Establishing a Road Map for Brand Experience Martin Payne of Through the Loop and Ross Urquhart of RPM take a look at the meaning of Brand Experience to identify its true meaning and the factors that are driving its development.  
Four Ways to Generate Greater Brand Efficiency Anyone can do marketing with a blank check. Lean times, or even the threat of lean times, force us to be more careful with our decision making. Taking the right decisions and behaving accordingly will protect brands in difficult times, and also provide long-term solutions for building strong brands, during any economic period.  
From Chaos to Constellation Creating Better Brand Alignment on the Web. It’s easy for an organization to put up a few Web sites. It’s quite another feat, as Eliot Phillips makes clear, to ensure that they are brandbuilding, coherent, compelling, up-to-date, and easy to use.   
How to Brand a Midsize B2B Company Branding in B2B markets is certainly more than finding a clever name for a product or company. Successful branding requires discipline and focus.   
International Branding: Analysis and Implications of Three Decades of Past Research Over past decades, the field of international branding has developed in different directions. However, it seems that so far no review of this literature has been published. 2007  
Learning from the lucky thirteen Bain & Company research from early this year found that, of the top 90 winning brands in 2001, only 13 continued to be winners through 2007. Bain's analysis identified two major missteps that could endanger even the most successful brands. 2008  
Managing Image in a Dynamic Corporate Environment How can a company create and maintain a corporate reputation that effectively addresses the key audiences, simultaneously supporting the marketing of its products and services, enhancing the value of company stock and strengthening the sense of corporate culture among its employees?   
Marketers Challenged to Respond to Changing Nature of Brand Building This article examines how societal shifts resulting in a better-informed consumer are changing the nature of the customer-brand relationship as well as the nature of branding building.   
Marketing v. Branding Why these two business tools should be kept separate  
Measuring Brand Risk Measuring Brand Risk. How big are the risks to a company's brand? In direct proportion to one's willingness to find out.   
More Than Employees: Brand Evangelists Although it is nurtured and managed by your marketing department, your brand is represented by your entire organization.   
Now What Shall We Call This Widget? Why companies come up with good names, bad names, and terrible names.   
On brands and word of mouth Brands and word-of-mouth (WOM) are cornerstones of marketing, yet, their relationship was largely ignored. In order to explore this relationship we present a theoretical framework whose fundamentals are consumers and what stimulates them to engage in WOM. 2011  
Orchestrating a Successful Brand Identity Creating Harmony Instead of Cacophony. Managing a brand identity is somewhat akin to conducting a symphony orchestra. The audience's expectations of quality and selection must be clearly understood.   
Small Business Branding - The Personal Connection Small business marketing shares many features with marketing for larger organisations. However, one area where small businesses can excel is through promotion of their owner or founder.   
Store Brands Overview about store brands, for what products they are used and what advantages they have  
The branding failures of tomorrow Having a successful brand does not always ensure long-term success. There are many examples of brands that were once considered category leaders but are now viewed as nostalgia or even museum pieces.   
The Evolving Nature of Branding: Consumer and Managerial Considerations This paper is primarily a review of the brand literature and has two aims. The first is to bring together two separate streams of literature: (1) the literature about brand concepts developed by management and (2) the literature about brand images developed by consumers.   
The Influence Of Product Variety On Brand Perception And Choice The authors propose that the variety a brand offers can influence brand quality perceptions, and consequently, affect brand choice, even when the available option set is held constant. pdf-file. 2006  
Three "C"s of Branding This article looks at three aspects of good brands. In describing the three "C"s of branding, William Arruda provides an easy-to-use device that can help a brand manager ensure that the brand remains focused. Autumn 2003  
Turning Good Ideas Into Bad News: The Effect of Negative and Positive Sponsorship Information on Sponsor’s Brand Image  Through sponsorships, companies primarily expect to establish, strengthen, or change their brand image. We analyze the effects of negative and positive sponsorship information on the favourability and structure of sponsors ́ brand images. 2013  
Viral Ad Parodies and their Impact on Brands FWD: This Made Me Laugh. How Viral Ad Parodies Impact Your Brand. This paper looks at the four key questions to ask when looking at a parody, and gives tools to assess how a parody may be impacting your brand.    
Brand Strategy
Brand Leadership Matrix Adapted from the BCG Matrix developed in the ‘70s to analyze corporate investment strategy, the Brand Leadership MatrixTM was developed with the purpose of helping brand owners measure and analyze the strength of their brands and the effectiveness of their branding and marketing strategies.  
Brand strategy that shifts demand The ultimate point of a brand is not to generate buzz—it's to shift customer demand. 2012  
Deciding to fight or play in the private-label arena How to best compete as private labels gain ground? It depends on the nature of your category and your brand's position.  
General Strategies for Global Brands This paper introduces four general brand strategies and examines the internal and external factors that influence these strategies for global brands.   
Mistakes and confusions: 3 strategies in 7 years A lesson on how one systematically irritates and frightens customer and coworker alike with confused brand guidance is shown by the example of the 'Deutsche Bank' (German Bank).   
Shareholder-value-based brand strategies This paper looks at how brands contribute to the firm’s strategy and how brand planning needs to be geared to market economics and management’s central objective of creating shareholder value.   
Branding Globally
Branding a Country Brands have the power to influence how we percieve things, and that not only includes products and services, but countries as well. A country's success relies on its image -- its brand. With that said, how exactly do you go about branding a country? Pdf-file April 2003  
Consumer Attitudes Toward Cross-Border Brand Alliances: Adding A Consideration Of Country Of Origin Fit This research examines the growing phenomenon of cross-border brand alliances and the potential factors that influence consumers’ attitudes toward these alliances. Master's Thesis. Pdf-file 100 KB  
Creating the Preeminent Global Brand: Building Powerful Strategies that Strengthen Brand Equity. Pdf-file  
Foreign Branding Foreign Branding and Its Effect on Product Perceptions and Attitudes. Pdf-file  
General Strategies for Global Brands This paper introduces four general brand strategies and examines the internal and external factors that influence these strategies for global brands.   
International Brand Architecture Development, drivers, and design  
Language and Brand Attitudes Impact of Script and Sound Matching in Chinese and English. Pdf-file  
Taking Global Brands to Japan Some successful retailers offer their strategies.   
Brand Portfolios
Brand Consolidation Bringing Discipline to Brand Consolidation – the right choice for capturing value in the face of ballooning portfolios and brand dilution.
Facts reveal large benefits of a successful brand consolidation.
Brand Portfolio and Architecture An online guide for the management of a brand portfolio.   
Brand Portfolio Strategy and Firm Performance Most large firms operating in consumer markets own and market more than one brand (i.e., they have a brand portfolio). Although firms make corporate-level strategic decisions regarding their brand portfolio, little is known about whether and how a firm’s brand portfolio strategy is linked to its business performance. The authors find that  five brand portfolio characteristics explain significant variance in five or more of the seven aspects of firms’ marketing and financial performance examined.   
Brand Portfolio Strategy Effects on Firm Value and Risks  This paper provides an empirical investigation of the effects of brand portfolio strategy on shareholder value and risk. Although previous research has shown that Branded House strategies in which all firm offerings are presented using the corporate umbrella brand generate higher values of Tobin’s q than House of Brands strategies in which separate brands are cultivated, the risk profiles of these alternate portfolio approaches have not yet been considered.   
Building Your Brand Customized brand architecture programs can help companies manage their brand portfolios.  
Finding New Paths to Growth by Managing Brand Portfolios Well The active management of brand portfolios has become more important for several reasons. This article discusses the four key principles of brand portfolio management. pdf  
Guidelines for Umbrella Brand Concepts To establish and improve the acceptance of umbrella brands, two things are essential: safeguarding consumer safety and avoiding misleading consumers about product characteristics.
These guidelines set out the framework of conditions and explain which basic principles need to be met to support companies in the introduction of umbrella brands. 
How to Slim Down a Brand Portfolio The objective is not merely to divest brands, but to achieve higher rates of growth for the brands that remain. 2006  
Linking the relationship between brand portfolio structure and corporate reputation: a customer perspective This study will explore the significance of corporate brand portfolio structure in determining corporate reputation.   
Making Brand Portfolios Work Rigorous economic analysis and strong insights into consumers can help marketers clarify the competitive positioning of their brands, avoid offending the core consumers of repositioned or discontinued ones, minimize cannibalization, and seize growth opportunities. pdf 2004  
Optimal Brand Umbrella Size Umbrella branding is a superior strategy when there is a significant overlap between the set of buyers of each of the firm's products. This result extends the well-known notion that brand extensions and umbrella branding are only successful if there is a good "fit" between the different products under the same umbrella.   
Short-term brands revolutionize branding In recent years, consumers have exhibited an unprecedented readiness to try new brands and have shown a clear preference for brand variety over brand loyalty. In order to cope with this, marketers have to not only develop Long Term Brands but also have to manage profitable Short Term Brands.   
Solving the puzzle of complex brand portfolios This issue of Lippincott Mercer's Magazine 'Sense' features articles and case studies about brand portfolio management, such as 'Until brands are managed collectively, as portfolios, they won’t do all they can do for shareholders.' and 'Achieving the ideal brand portfolio often means beating back the naysayers.' pdf  
Stop Leaving Money on the Table - Get More Value from Your Brand Portfolio! Research suggests that few companies actually get the most out of their brand portfolio as a whole and thus leave large sums of money on the table. This same research suggests that the explanation for the gap between realized and potential value is less to do with individual brand marketing and development capabilities, and much more to do with a lack of a systematic and well governed means for managing the portfolio of brands as whole. new
Strike Up the Brands Companies can positively impact top- and bottom-line growth by becoming smarter about the way that they manage their brand portfolios. To increase returns from brands assets, companies must adopt a more structured approach to portfolio management. 2003  
Brand Extensions
Attitude-Based versus Coice-Behavior-Based Success of Brand Extensions This study compares the effects of brand extension success drivers across attitude-based and choice-behavior-based measures of extension success within the FMCG sector. Our findings imply that fit and parent brand strength may not be dominant success drivers in the context of choice-behavior-based success measures.  
Brand Extensions How to Conduct Successful Brand Extensions. Brand extension can be a very dangerous strategy. Get it wrong and the core brand is damaged. If it is undertaken correctly, the extension adds to the equity of the core brand. Daniel Edelman provides a number of lessons for companies that are looking at extending their brands.    
Brand Extensions We Could Do Without  Marketing by brand is big money, but just how far can you stray from your core product or service before consumers say no?   
Consumer response to brand extensions: Construal level as a moderator of the importance of perceived fit One of the most enduring findings from branding research is that consumers evaluate brand extensions on the basis of their perceived fit with the parent brand. In this article, we propose that the importance of perceived fit in extension evaluations is moderated by construal level.   
Drivers of Brand Extension Success The research presented in this article addresses the issue of the significance and relative importance of the determinants of extension success by simultaneously investigating ten success factors.  
Extending a Brand This article gives an overview on - What you need to know - What to do - What to avoid. Thus it lists several approaches for brand extension. pdf  
Extending the Brand How to optimize the brand-customer relationship across multiple contact points. Pdf  
Factors influencing successful brand extensions Organisations frequently follow brand extension strategies. This paper investigates the impact of category similarity, brand reputation, perceived risk and consumer innovativeness on the success of brand extensions in FMCG, durable goods and services sectors. pdf-file September 2001  
How To Successfully Extend Your Brand The method by which consumers form brand extension “fit” judgements is often poorly understood.   
Understanding brand equity for successful brand extension The costs of introducing a brand into a consumer market can be considerable. One of the most important effects is to make brand extensions more compelling. Leveraging the brand equity of a successful brand promises to make introduction of a new entry less costly by trading on an established name.   



Publications Literature

In our publications-section, we have compiled a variety of papers from the and from our valued partners that focus on branding. They cover topics like:

● Building Brands
● Brand Strategy
● Naming Issues
● Branding Services
● Brand Management
● Branding for Different Types of Products

Branding Articles

BrandSimple: How the Best Brands Keep it Simple and Succeed 
by Allen P. Adamson, Martin Sorrell
In an era in which complex marketing theories compete for attention, it is harder than ever to communicate a brand's message. Allen Adamson offers a refreshingly simple solution: Bring back the basics of good branding, and stay away from needlessly complicated strategies.

Lovemarks: TheFuture Beyond Brands
by Kevin Roberts, A. G. Lafley
Kevin Roberts passionately believes that love is the way forward for business. In his second book, Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands, Roberts recounts the journey from Products to Trademarks to Brands - and the urgency of taking the next step up - to Lovemarks.

Brand Portfolio Strategy : Creating Relevance, Differentiation, Energy, Leverage, and Clarity
by David A. Aaker
Corporations may legally be considered persons, but to promote their individuality to consumers, they need a brand—and a strategy. This intriguing marketing treatise teaches companies how to understand and exploit the finely graded social system that brands inhabit in the marketplace.

Harvard Business Review on Brand Management (The Harvard Business Review Paperback Series)
by Erich Joachimsthaler, David Aaker, David Kenny, Vijay Vishwanath, Mark Jonathan, John A. Quelch

Protecting the Brand: A Concise Guide to Promoting, Maintaining, and Protecting a Company's Most Valuable Asset
by Talcott J. Franklin
Aspirin, Cornflakes, Dry Ice, Brassiere, Zipper-is just a short list of names once recognized as brands that lost their exclusivity due to owner misuse and ignorance of trademark law protection. Protecting the Brand reviews such disasters, and then offers the information that would have prevented them from happening.

Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity
by Kevin Lane Keller
Why are brands important? What do they mean to consumers? How can they be built? What are they worth? What should be done to manage them properly?

Building Strong Brands
by David A. Aaker
Aaker uses real brand-building cases from Saturn, General Electric, Kodak, Healthy Choice, McDonald's, and others to demonstrate how strong brands have been created and managed.

The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding: How to Build a Product or Service into a World-Class Brand
by Laura Ries, Al Ries
The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding is the definitive text on branding, distilling the complex principles and theories espoused in other long-winded, high-priced professional marketing tomes into twenty-two quick and easy-to-read vignettes.





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Status: 03. Juli 2015